Private Frau

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Private Frau

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Here is a glossary with phrasebook to help you at the Post. Share Flipboard Email. Hyde Flippo. German Expert. Hyde Flippo taught the German language for 28 years at high school and college levels and published several books on the German language and culture.

Updated February 24, German uses Frau for both Mrs and Ms any woman 18 or older. Herrn - Frau - Fräulein Note the 'n' ending on Herrn , reflecting the understood phrase: an Herrn XYZ to Mr.

XYZ Address female Die Anschrif t weiblich Mrs Ms Maria Schmidt Schillerstrasse 19 19 Schiller St.

Herrn Karl Braun Note the n! Other types of streets: Allee avenue, boulevard , Gasse lane , Weg way, drive. Return Address Der Absender Sarah Brown Fall Lane Cactus City, NV USA if mailed from abroad A German return address preceded by the abbreviation Abs.

Box Postfach Registered Mail Eingeschrieben postage stamp die Briefmarke. English Deutsch Thank you for your letter Vielen Dank für deinen Brief It was good to hear from you again Ich habe mich gefreut, wieder von dir zu hören I'm sorry that I haven't written for so long Tut mir Leid, dass ich so lange nicht geschrieben habe Please don't be mad at me for Sei mir bitte nicht böse, dass ich Schreib mal wieder!

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Deutsch English Bei Umzug Anschriftenbenachrichtigungskarte! New address requested! If recipient has moved, return to sender with new address! These traditional meanings of modifying the body were revived in contemporary western society by the Modern primitive.

Inspired by ethnographic accounts of tribal practices, this subculture adopted genital piercings as a matter individuation and spirituality.

For most people that seek genital piercings nowaday, a sense of uniqueness and non-conformism prevails. Thus, while not automatically discounting the findings and arguments of prior research, we speculate that perhaps the social and cultural meanings of genital piercings have changed so that while at an earlier time, persons with genital piercings may have indeed perceived their piercings as being markers of resistance or as signs of individuality or of subcultural identity, today, genital piercings are, by and large, just another mainstream and fairly conventional type of body decoration and adornment.

Thomas, Professor of Sociology. Additionally, genital piercings can enhance sexual pleasure during masturbation, foreplay and intercourse.

While female genital piercings do this only to the women wearing them, male genital piercings can enhance stimulation for both the person wearing the jewelry and their partner by stimulating both the glans of the wearer and the vaginal wall or the anus of the penetrated partner.

Due to genital physiology, women seem to gain more sexual pleasure from both, their own as well as her partner's genital piercings.

This effect is in particular reported for piercings passing through the glans penis: the ampallang and apadravya piercing. Women of the Dayak in Sarawak , Borneo prefer men with an ampallang, claiming that intercourse without would be dull:.

They say that the embrace without this contrivance is plain rice; with it is rice with salt. It is, in this, in my experience, decidedly successful.

For men, piercings that stimulate the sensitive urethra , either during masturbation or sexual intercourse, increase sensation.

The triangle piercing is known to be quite pleasurable by providing stimulation of the underside of the clitoral glans, an area that is usually not stimulated at all.

Comparable to other piercings, improper hygiene during the piercings process carries the risk of transmitting blood borne diseases and during the healing process it might lead to infection.

Some physicians believe that male genital piercings increase the risk of STD transmission by making safer sex barriers condoms less effective.

The time to fully heal a genital piercing varies tremendously, depending on piercing site and individual characteristics: it can range from a week up to six months.

Until fully healed, preparations should be made against possible causes of infection, such as proper cleaning on a daily basis.

People with fresh piercings should abstain from sexual activity for the first few days and also then should use physical protection barriers such as condoms until the piercing is fully healed.

Laws in other countries vary. In many European countries, minors are required to bring a signed consent form from or to be escorted by a legal guardian.

Even in countries that have no laws regulating genital piercing in minors, many piercers refrain from doing them since physiological development is not completed in minors.

In the United States , it is prohibited to pierce the genitals of persons younger than 18 years. Possible piercing sites on the male genitalia include the glans, the skin of the penis shaft, the scrotum or the perineum.

Piercings through the glans of the penis include the ampallang , which passes horizontally, and the apadravya , that passes vertically through the glans.

The Prince Albert piercing is situated on the ventral side underside of the penis immediately behind the glans, while the reverse Prince Albert piercing passes through the dorsal top side of the glans.

The dydoe pierces through the coronal rim of the glans. With the exception of the dydoe, all these piercings traditionally pass through the urethra.

This is preferred because healing time and incidence of infection are reduced by the flow of sterile urine.

These piercings provide increased stimulation during intercourse to the male who is carrying the piercing as well as to the partner.

Piercings through the head, or the glans, are the genital piercings with the best-documented historical evidence.

Prince Albert. Reverse Prince Albert piercing. Foreskin piercing passes through the penile prepuce on the dorsal, ventral or lateral side.

It is required that the male isn't circumcised. The frenum piercing passes through the penile frenum, a small skin bridge that connects the glans with the shaft skin.

This anatomical part is also often missing in circumcised men. The hafada piercing is situated on the skin of the scrotum. As an intermediate version between frenulum and hafada, the lorum piercing lo w fren um sits at the point where penis and scrotum connect.

The Jacob's Ladder is a ladder from frenum to scrotum. The guiche piercing is a body piercing on the perineum.

These piercings play a lesser role in adding stimulation and more or less fulfill only a decorative purpose.

In female individuals as well, various anatomical parts can be suitable for piercings. These include the mons pubis , the clitoral hood , the inner and outer labia and the vulval vestibule which is the area surrounding the vaginal opening.

The glans of the clitoris itself can be pierced. Since this anatomical part is too small in many cases, this piercing is not very common. In contrast, the clitoral hood piercing is the most common genital piercing for female bodied individuals.

It can be applied horizontally and vertically. The deep hood piercing is a variation of the clitoral hood piercing that pass deeper through the clitoral hood.

The Isabella piercing passes vertically through the clitoral shaft and is rather complicated to pierce. Vertical clitoral hood piercing VCH. Horizontal clitoral hood piercing HCH.

The Labia piercing can be applied at the labia majora or the labia minora. The Triangle piercing is located at the ventral end of the labia minora, at the point of transition between labia and clitoral hood.

It runs horizontally, partly under the clitoral shaft. Through the dorsal rim of the vulval vestibule passes the Fourchette piercing.

A less common version of the Fourchette is the Suitcase piercing, which can be considered as a deep Fourchette it enters on the perineum.

Also rather uncommon is the Princess Albertina piercing , the female version of the Prince Albert piercing, that passes through the ventral lower wall of the urethra.

Princess Albertina piercing. The Christina piercing is a surface piercing , situated on the upper part of the mons pubis where the outer labia meet.

This has reflected in an increase in divestments by IPO. According to EVCA, IPOs increased more than seven times yoy by amount EUR2.

This section will present the main measures of return for PE funds. Chapter 3 will then link those returns with a measure of value creation for the portfolio companies, taking into account the different levers through which that value is generated.

Valuation multiples Multiples are typically calculated as the ratio of cash paid out distributions to total funds that the investors supplied to the PE fund manager draw downs or capital calls.

Therefore, the index usually starts at zero and rise as funds mature. Measuring Funds Return drawn before investments are made.

When analyzing an individual investment, the Cash on Cash multiple is used. Net Asset Value can be computed using various valuation models.

A more accurate measure of return, is the Internal Rate of Return. Internal Rate of Return IRR is the most commonly used measure of the return on private equity investments.

Figure 2. Source: Nikoskelainen and Wright Caselli et al. Figures 2. Measuring Funds Return Figure 2. Functioning of Private Equity Funds Figure 2.

Source: Cendrowsky et al. Gompers et al. Which is the target return for PE funds? How are the funds organized?

In to answer these questions, the authors survey 79 PE investors for a total of c. The paper shows that few PE investors use discounted cash flow or net present value techniques to evaluate investments, but they rely much more on IRR, multiples on invested capital, and comparable companies multiples.

In order to determine the value at exit usually funds employ a five years time horizon even if longer holding periods are considered more and more common , while the valuation is mainly based on multiples, rather than DCF techniques.

Those aspects will be the subject of the following Chapter. Cash flows are driven by return on capital, and revenues growth, that are therefore the ultimate value drivers Figure 3.

This chapter, through the review of theoretical and empirical literature, will present the actions put in place by PE funds in order to increase the value of their portfolio companies.

The framework described will then be used in the analysis of Poltrona Frau Group case see Ch. Figure 3. Source: Koller et al.

Private Equity and Value Creation Figure 3. Source: Boston Consulting Group, Since the emergence of PE as a major assets class, the debate arose about whether PE funds carried a beneficial effect on the economy, or simply transferred value from other stakeholders to themselves.

The main accusations, that PE have dealt with, were having a short-termism approach, aimed to generate high return for funds quickly, and pursuing a sort of commodisation of target companies, viewed just as an asset class, and deprived of their social and cultural value.

Governance Engineering der to measure value generation. This work is focuses on the operational, post-buyout performance approach, the most apt to in order to maintain an equity-investor, firm-based perspective.

This approach links company and transaction-specific information as well as external, market variables to find the determinants of value creation in PE deals.

According to the most recent literature, actions, undertook by PE funds looking for value creation in portfolio firms, can be classified into financial, governance and opera- tional engineering Kaplan and Stromberg, Actually, the discussion over the alleged superiority of PE-backed firms governance over public corporations was one of the first to animate the debate over PE benefits Jensen, ; Rappaport, This line of research focuses on the capability of PE funds to mitigate agency problems, especially in the context of Public to Private PTP deals.

The agency issue affects value creation, since the agents managers could have different goals and attitudes towards risk with respect to the shareholders, and therefore choose to discard potentially profitable projects and run unprofitable ones.

Private Equity and Value Creation especially in larger companies, managers could be tempted to increase spending on non profitable projects, boosting growth at the expense of value Koller et al.

They can introduce more sophisticated reporting requirements, especially if thinking about an exit via IPO. Moreover, PE investors can replace poorly performing management according to Acharya et al.

More recently, following the increasing interest in Venture Capital deals, research has focused on the stimulus that PE funds would give to entrepreneurial mindset within the portfolio companies Bruining et al.

According to Bruining et al. Moreover, new resources and input from the fund would stimulate managers to embark in more risky, innovative projects.

Building on Stevenson and Gumpert definition of managerial approach, Bruining et al. Bruining et al. The survey confirmed results by Zahra , asserting that institutional ownership, and the presence of a major power- ful shareholder, encourages a CEO to pursue risky long-term ventures, with a corporate entrepreneurship approach.

PE firms can provide complementary resources and capabilities that may be missing from the management team Wright et al.

Moreover, PE funds can replicate the benefits that firms would have from being part of a bigger conglomerate, in being provided both industry experience and a valuable network parenting advantage, Berg and Gottschalg, As underlined by Berg and Gottschalg , governance engineering, as a secondary lever of value creation, has no direct effect to the bottom line, but it could support the creation of value through primary levers, meaning operational and financial engineering.

Those PE firms that seek for operational engineering are usually more active, seeking to monitor and influence the strategy and management practices of their targets.

With decreasing popularity of high leveraged deals and market conditions less favorable than before, PE firms are concen- trating more and more on this lever in order to create value.

According to Achleitner et al. The research showed that the leverage com- ponent is stronger for bigger deals EV over EUR M , while revenues growth plays a more central role in smaller deals.

As seen in Chap. Results are contrasting: ac- cording to some research, plants involved in MBOs move from being less productive than comparables before the deal, to overperforming their peers, and see a material decrease in employment; other authors do not find material changes in employment due to PE intervention: some manage to prove an increase in levels of employment, training, employee empowerment, and wages Bruining et al.

On the other hand, empirical evidence is consistent with the view that PE firms are able to create economic value by improving efficiency, especially in buyouts, and boosting growth, especially for smaller companies.

In particular, PE entry fosters more efficient debt management, allowing to exploit tax shields; the net- work, reputation, and skills of PE partners can also improve lending conditions.

Empirical research shows that the leverage effects account for c. On the other hand, Rappaport states that borrowing per se creates no value other than tax benefits, but more value comes from the operational efficiencies debt inspire.

Source: Elaboration from Berg and Kaplan In particular, financial arbitrage creates value from a buy low-sell high strategy, exploiting differences in the valuation of a company be- tween acquisition and divestment independent of changes in the real performance; those changes can be driven by changes in public markets valuation for comparable companies multiple riding , or information asymmetries between insiders the PE fund in particu- lar and the market concerning volatility and future financial performance.

Measuring Value Creation 3. In this section, we will address investment performance measurement under the point of view of the portfolio firms and equity investors, and based on the aforementioned levers of value creation.

The section is mainly based on the works of Pindur , Loos , and Achleitner et al. Source: Pindur A similar approach more simplified since transaction costs and interim equity streams are not considered is suggested by Loos The author uses a similar post-buyout equity investor perspective in order to analyze value creation in PE deals.

T otalP roceeds T P for the deal are defined as the gain for equity investors see Figure 4. Private Equity and Value Creation Total proceeds for equity investors can be decomposed into five components, which can be classified by having an intrinsic or extrinsic origin.

Debt repayment and equity distributions can both be regarded as uses of cash, equity injections on the other hand as a source of cash.

Source: Adaptation from Pindur This method for the calculation of the different levers of value creation is particularly complete and coherent.

On the other hand, this method highlights once again to different perspectives for value creation: the internal one, driven by operational performance improvements and financing effects, and the external one, given by variation in the transaction multiples, as highlighted in Figure 3.

The frameworks described above will be used in the analysis of the Poltrona Frau Group case Chapter 4, pp. Appendix A.

Private Equity and Growth 3. In this section, the attention will be on a particular aspect of value creation, meaning growth, giving some insights on how PE funds may activate this particular lever, especially for SMEs.

Small size has been appreciated for the flexibility and adaptability it provided, allowing firms to face changing environments and reach high quality standards and product innovation.

On the other hand, as highlighted by Oliva , in only one Italian entrepreneur over ten thought that small dimension was a competitive advantage.

Therefore, PE can act as a primary instrument to strengthen the mass of small and medium enterprises, constituting the core of Italian and other European economies Teti and Casillo, Benefits of growth are well known: 1 Achieve higher returns for shareholders through revenues growth; 2 Increase stock market valuation, thus decreasing the risk of hostile takeovers; 3 Achieve economies of scale; 4 Reach dominant market position 5 Attract and retain better human capital; 6 Diversify sources of revenues growth from interna- tionalization and increasing product offering ; 7 Achieve enough critical mass to look for resources in capital markets IPO.

Previous sections have highlighted how PE funds have been able to increase revenues of their portfolio firms. Here we will concentrate on the strategies implemented by PE firms in order to achieve those results.

In fact, several studies have found that employment, asset, value added, and sales growth rates of PE-backed firms exceed their benchmarks ex.

Boucly et al. PE funds can provide resources and managerial advisory for inorganic growth, and foster organic growth, through governance and operational engineering.

In particular, some research seems to conclude that GPs with operational background tend to concentrate on internal growth, while those with financial background try to increase the value through external growth Acharya et al.

It is no mystery that PE funds put increased pressure on the shoulders of former or incumbent management in order to improve revenues.

This is achieved both increasing leverage and therefore need of cash to service debt , and by pushing for ambitious business plans. As active investors, PE funds closely monitor the management actions, streamlining the execution of the new strategy.

Berg and Gottschalg offer an interesting perspective on inorganic growth with the so-called buy and build strategies. Such strategy manages to establish a dominant market position and to capture economics of scale.

Poltrona Frau Group development is a good example for this kind of behavior see Chapter 4. Nikoskelainen and Wright conclude that BO returns 1 Sample: exited buyouts in the UK, period These include 52 IPOs, 91 trade sales to strategic or industrial buyers, 57 secondary buyouts involving sale to another private equity investor, and exits where the buyouts have filed for either bankruptcy or bankruptcy protection.

Private Equity and Growth are often driven by acquisitions during the holding period, while the study shows that buy-ins are more driven by divestment which negatively affect BOs.

This seem to support the theory of enhanced entrepreneurial mindset brought by PE funds, in the case of buy-outs acquisitions as reflection of opportunity-driven management , and of reduced agency costs, in the case of buy-ins divestment of non profitable projects.

Hammer et al. This is particularly true outside the Anglo-Saxon world, where credit markets are smaller and less functioning.

Data supporting this hypothesis for French companies similar, in size and structure, to Italian ones , are particularly significant: Boucly et al.

Growth is particularly evident for private- to-private transactions in financially dependent industries, while public-to-private and divisional buyouts seem to focus more on profitability, independently from the industry.

A similar statement is made by Teti and Casillo , who underline as risk capital brought by private equity firms and other equity investors could provide those resources that banking system cannot assure any more in this particular conjuncture.

Teti and Casillo highlight the role of PE in the listing of Italian firms, explaining how the combination of PE and capital markets can relieve the financial structure of Italian companies, traditionally bank oriented, even generating liquidity excess as a result of the considerable reduction of financial debt.

Therefore, more resources are available in order to pursue innovative projects and fuel corporate expansion. Innovation is itself a powerful driver for internal growth, especially for firms in the so called Made in Italy segment see Chap 4.

Taking number of patents as proxies for innovation, Lerner et al. Zahara and Fescina , building on previous literature on increased new products development after a buyout, demonstrate that PE deals have 3 Sample: firms that received private equity backing between and , and filed at least one patent.

These results are coherent with the aforementioned dimension of renewed entrepreneurial spirit brought by PE funds Bruining et al.

Particularly in Italy, international expansion has proved to be one of the main levers of growth, pursued both though acquisitions and export.

Literature underlines how PE funds contribute in this sense not only proving capital, but especially through 1 man- agerial experience, 2 commercial network, 3 willingness to pursue maximum growth and development, in order to achieve higher IRR at exit, and 4 broad track record PEM, Even if it is debated whether internationalization brings actual value, or just boosts growth to the expenses of profitability Lu and Beamish, , surely for SMEs, particularly in the European context, going international is essential in order to remain competitive.

Analyzing 73 Italian PE deals between and mainly private-to- private buyouts, with average revenue around EUR Mn , PEM finds that the share of export on total sales during holding period increases by Those figures are supported both by foreign acquisi- tion, and partnerships creation.

For the adoption of the perspective described in this section to Poltrona Frau Group case, see Chapter 4, pp. Some people think design means how it looks.

Therefore, the case study will allow the reader to appreciate the increasing importance of private equity in Italy, supporting entrepreneurship, providing capital, and leading firms with an important history to step off from a traditional, domestic dimension, towards a modern, international perspective.

The analysis will proceed as follows. In the first part, there will be a presentation of the Italian high end furniture sector, with a particular emphasis on its relation with private equity; data presented have been elaborated mainly from Private Equity Monitor, AIDA, 1 Mitchell Kapor.

Case Study: Poltrona Frau Group AIFI, and Fondazione Altagamma. Second, the two protagonists of the case study will be introduced: the private equity fund Charme Investments and Poltrona Frau Group.

Therefore, the high-end segment plays a key role in Italian economy. Firms in this segment employ an average of units, while the average in remaining sectors is Indirect employment is estimated in 4.

Design and Furniture is among the most resilient categories of high-end products. It entails highly qualified manpower, and an unique business model with the right mix of technology, company culture, creativity, and know-how.

However, the high-end segment is bounded to the dynamics of the broader Italian furniture sector, which is a mature and highly fragmented industry.

Firms active in the sector are in the range of 36,, with an average of six employees per firm, and, typically, family ownership Lojacono, Source: Fondazione Altagamma website.

For high-end furniture and design, we used a sample of 16 firms, members of Fondazione Altagamma. Italian High-end Furniture Sector are shown in Figure 4.

In the period , high-end firms have outperformed the benchmark in both size and profitability growth, with a Sales CAGR of Sales growth has mainly been driven by export; data underline the double consequence of the emergence of high growth countries: on one side, they exert high price competition against low-end manufacturers; on the other side, their boost export, that usually matches high-end products.

High-end shows good liquidity, in line or slightly above the benchmark. Leverage is lower, on average, for the high-end group.

Looking at profitability ratios, return on assets and return on sales are well above the benchmark, while return on investment is similar between the two groups, with high-end experiencing a relevant growth in the last years.

Italy is an historical leader in furniture production, with the reputation of Made in Italy recognized by foreign retailers and consumers all over the world.

Among the key factors of this success, large investments in design, and a business model based on industrial districts are worth mentioning. Today, Italy is the fourth largest furniture producer in the world, after China, the USA and Germany, and it ranks third for furniture exports after China and Germany.

Constantly in this decade, roughly half of the production has been destined to export CISL, The predominance of small and micro family firms has allowed the industry to achieve a high level of flexibility and product innovation.

In order to have more consistent data, only firms with Revenues from sales and services in between , and 5, euros are included in the benchmark , amounting to companies.

Case Study: Poltrona Frau Group Figure 4. This constraint appears par- ticularly critical, since countries with a strong cultural, administrative, geographical and economical distance are starting having more and more relevance with respect to the past, therefore asking for a better commercial structure to face that distance CISL This represents the so called liability of foreignness, meaning the disadvantages that a firm has to face because of the lack of knowledge of the local market and its functioning rules Zaheer, Those disadvantages and social costs arise from the unfamiliarity, from the relational, and discriminatory hazards that foreign firms face over and above those faced by local firms in the host country.

LOF is a core strategic issue, and therefore requires a professional management approach Eden and Miller, Moreover, in the last decade the competition has been particularly strong on the side of cost efficiency, with new countries ready to offer lower cost of raw materials and manpower.

Changes have happened also in the internal market context, since the competition has climbed with the entrance of additional players, and the evolution of distribution and logistics.

Italian High-end Furniture Sector of the competition on price, 3 need to face the international context, developing strong managerial and financial resources.

In order to face this challenges, Italian firms in the furniture industry have adopted different strategies aimed to overcoming the size problem and allowing the access to incremental resources: partnerships, acquisition, horizontal diversification, reinforcement of equity with the contribution of external investors are the most common Eden and Miller, The partnership solution allows firms to exploit synergies among different functions inside the value chain.

As an example, in Boffi, Living and Porro, have decided to join strengths opening a showroom in New York, with the aim to accelerate the penetration in the markets.

They based their alliance, on one side, to their complementary products portfolio, and on the other hand, on the sharing of the same business culture.

This has allowed the three firms to make up for the need of relevant financial resources, without having to give up their autonomy.

In the same city, Cassina has activated a partnership with Flos for the creation of a logistic platform, in order to better serve the US market, achieving significant cost reductions.

A second solution is represented by inorganic growth by acquisition. Acquisitions are aimed to achieve quickly richer portfolio, and bigger size.

As an example, Poliform acquired Varenna in , adding to a portfolio specialized in living room and bedroom furniture the kitchen segment.

Acquisitions and partnerships can also lead to a drastic change in the structure of the offer, allowing firms to diversify horizontally.

The most revealing examples of horizontal diversification are to be found in the fashion industry, with a lot of firms expanding and differentiating in relatively weakly correlated sectors.

Plenty of famous fashion companies have decided to enter the furniture business, taking advantage from the international resonance of their brands.

Many of the products that comprise the home-ware lines of luxury fashion brands are manufactured and sold through licensing agreements.

These licensing agreements allow fashion brands to generate additional revenue streams without taking on operating costs. Case Study: Poltrona Frau Group to external investors, and in particular to private equity funds.

In this context, it is interesting to study the role of private equity in providing financial resources and knowledge needed in order to activate aggre- gation, internationalization and internal reorganization.

In the last decade, the private equity industry has shown a keen interest in high-end furniture, and generally in the companies linked to the Made in Italy concept.

Funds have learned how to cope with the dynamics of the sector, and invest in relatively small size firms, while targets have started to accept dilution of control and an external oversight.

Besides, firms in the Made in Italy compartment have the characteristics that are looked for from private equity firms: high growth potential, good cash flow, opportunity for internationalization, strong brands.

Italian High-end Furniture Sector Figure 4. Only deals from non governmental private equity houses are included. Source: Elaboration from PEM. This results have been achieved throughout different kinds of deals.

Expansion oper- ations have represented a strong push for small and medium firms, in order to strengthen their competitiveness in the international field.

Buyouts allowed to deal with the delicate phase of generational change and the evolution from a family structure to a managerial one, as well as provid- ing financial resources.

Target firms have outperformed the benchmark in employment as well, notwithstanding a challenging economical conjuncture The average number of employees for companies involved in the deals is , with average revenues of Mln euro.

Case Study: Poltrona Frau Group bigger targets. One of the main risks, when the involvement of private equity occurs, is to put strong emphasis on a short term perspective, trying to aggressively recover profitability in order to face the high level of leverage, typical of buyout operations.

In this scenario, the nature of private equity houses can be highly relevant Eden and Miller, This is the case of Charme Investments and its involvement with Poltrona Frau, which lasted 10 years and lead to the creation of a strong, international player in the high-end furniture segment6.

Charme Investments 4. In ten years, the Group was able to gain a major role in the international scenario, with a market share of 4. Established in , the SGR objective has been to invest in funds with a strong industrial and entrepreneurial component, maintaining long-term investment perspective.

Charme Investments was created in , with the aim to promote firms playing in consumer goods and luxury segments, and specializing in acquisition transactions.

The fund was based in Luxembourg, and started its activity with Mln euro liquidity, closing in with Mln. The main investors in Charme fund have been FiSvi Cinque Montezemolo , Moschini srl Moschini , Unicredit Bank Ag, Diego della Valle, Banca Intermobiliare, Lorenzo Gorgoni, Seragnoli family, Moncanino Marsiaj , Gianni Punzo, Merloni family, and Nerio Alessandri.

The fund developed with the acquisition of targets with high development potential: from the very beginning, the Figure 4. Case Study: Poltrona Frau Group stated strategy has been to invest in companies with high growth potential, strong brands, and high-quality products.

In addition to financial resources, Charme Investments has provided its portfolio firms with a strong managerial structure, in order to accelerate the growth process, working along with the existing management instead of taking over.

The growth of the investments commitment led, in , to the creation of Charme II, as a natural continuation of Charme Investments.

First closing for Charme II was Mn euro, with contributions from the original investors of Charme, and some new partners as the royal family of Abu Dhabi, the royal family of Bahrain, Ratan Tata, Bouygues family, and Banco Santander.

Similarly to Charme Investments, Charme II strategy involved investment in Italian and foreign branded goods, choosing as targets companies with strong brands and inter- national growth potential.

However, in line with Charme, the new fund would privilege and industrial and entrepreneurial logic, without rigid way-out and returns targets, and preferably with relatively small use of leverage.

Charme II main investments have been: Octo Telematics Europen leader in the supply of telco and insurance services, exit in , and Bellco exit in Resources where nearly over at the end of , with returns at 2.

Final closing is set for June , when the fund is expected to reach EUR Mln. It is worth noticing that the three funds chose to focus on the typical made in Italy companies, with strong brands and international recognition, such as food products, fashion, and jewelry; the investment period, set in advance for Opera and L Capital, has been quite long for all the funds between five and ten years, reflecting an entrepreneurial, rather then purely finan- cial, approach to the targets.

Case Study: Poltrona Frau Group 4. Figure 4. Source: Company Data Figure 4. Source: Elabo- ration from AIDA. Poltrona Frau Group In , the Group generated revenues for EUR Mln, with an increase of Segmentation by Brand, Geography and Business Segment is dis- played in Figure 4.

Each of them has strong heritage, rooted to its identity, style and design. The Group was able to leverage on the diversity and history of each brand, in order to reach the adequate size to consolidate the industry leadership in the key international markets, and consistently communicate the intrinsic value of each brand.

A strong emphasis is given to the uniqueness and complementarity in pricing, style and product offer See Figure 4. A superior industrial know how has different declination across the three brands: for Poltrona Frau, the focus is on traditional materials and iconic workmanship; Cassina relies on a strong carpentry department, with top end standards from sourcing to the manufacturing process; Cappellini has an unrivaled ability for the exploitation of new technologies on a wide range of materials for high design products.

Source: Elaboration from Company Data. Case Study: Poltrona Frau Group The Group is able to engage renowned designers, giving them technical support and cultivating long term relationships.

This leads to strong design and development skills, which, together with a consistent retail strategy, and important relationships with ex- clusive brands, have been the keys to the worldwide success of Poltrona Frau Group, recognized also by various design and innovation awards.

The business model guarantees independence among the three main brands, and to the different market segments: Residential, Luxury Interiors, and Luxury in Motion.

The brand portfolio as we can see it now is the consequence of both an acquisition strategy, started in by Franco Mosconi with the acquisition of Gebruder Thonet Vienna, and a reorganization and refocusing process, which took place after the IPO.

The following paragraphs give account of the main brands that have been making up Poltrona Frau Group during the period Source: Company Data Poltrona Frau.

Poltrona Frau was established in by Renzo Frau, an artisan from Cagliari. Frau who moved to Turin and founded the company there, becoming in the official supplier of the Royal House.

In the 50s, following the death of the founder, the company went to serious difficulty and came close to bankruptcy.

One of the most highly exposed creditors was Conceria del Chienti, owned by the Nazareno Gabrielli family. Poltrona Frau Group out. Franco Moschino took over Poltrona Frau in , becoming the only shareholder in Since , the company has been run by CEO Giuliano Mosconi, and started the process of expansion of the firm that would be carried on by Charme Investments, with the acquisitions of Gebruder Thonet Vienna , Gufram and Celi Poltrona Frau focuses on luxury products with a classical design.

Its core values are expert craftsmanship and the attention to the materials, both traditional leather, which has its on brand Pelle Frau , and innovative carbon fiber, titanium.

The business model is based on three business units: Residential, Luxury in Motion cars, planes, helicopters, and yachts and Contract seating for theaters hotels, luxury companies stores, restaurants Fil-rouge of the three business segments is PelleFrau, an exclusive leather brand.

Over the last 20 years, the it has completed over 60 theaters and auditorium worldwide Oslo Opera House, Auditorium Parco della Musica in Rome, European Parliament, Walt Disney Concert Hall in LA, etc.

At the time of acquisition, Poltrona Frau had a satisfying performance, even if prof- itability was lower with respect to the sector, and low activity in international markets.

Cappellini was established in by Enrico Cappellini, as a small furni- ture workshop. From the firm showed a strong attention to innovation and exper- imentation in design.

In , the designer and architect Giulio Cappellini joined the management team, and the company started working with the most famous avant-garde architect and designers.

In order to achieve that, beside keeping relationships with renowned designers, the company has been scouting for new designers worldwide.

The acquisition was followed by a deep 7 Company website. Case Study: Poltrona Frau Group restructuring that saved Cappellini from failure Galloni and Mangiarotti, Gebruder Thonet Vienna GmbH was founded in by Michael Thonet and was one of the first international furniture firms; the company based its success on the popularity of the No.

Gebruder Thonet Vienna was then able to integrate the industrial dimension with design and quality, specializing in wood chairs, with a classical style and mid-market positioning.

Between the end of XIX and the beginning of XX cent. Gebrueder Thoet was acquired by Poltrona Frau in for EUR However, the brand gradually lost strategic importance for the group after the acquisition of Cassina and Cappellini.

Gufram was established in , but its origins go back until the beginning of the XX cent. It acquired visibility in the s as the company at the forefront of the radical design movement.

Starting from , Gufram established a contract division, providing appliances for public sites and seating for auditoriums and conference rooms.

Established in , Cassina represents the best of Italian industrial design. Cassina played a key role in the passage from artisan manu- facturing to mass production, thanks to the close cooperation between external designers 8 Company website.

The firm is internationally renown for its several cult products, comprised in its three collections: I Maestri which includes products by Le Corbusier, Frank Lloyd Wright and Charles Mackintosh, icons of the worldwide design of the last century , I Contemporanei with creations by some of the most important contemporary designers, such as Vico Magistretti and Piero Lissoni , and finally SimonCollezione, following the acquisition, in , of Mobili Simon.

Flagship stores are located in Milan, Paris, New York and Tokyo; moreover, Cassina models are displayed in some of the most representative museums in the world, such as MoMA in New York and the Tate Gallery in London.

The Contract activities of Cassina started in , with the realization of ship interiors, in particular those of Andrea Doria in cooperation with Gio Ponti.

At the moment of acquisition, in , Cassina portfolio included two other important brands: Alias seating for contract and residential market , Nemo contemporary-style lighting for residential, offices, hotels and showrooms.

The com- pany products mostly included seats for households and community spaces, bookshelves and containers.

At the time of acquisition, Cassina showed good solidity and revenues generation, but profitability was following a downward trend, undermining development opportunities.

Right: Brands portfolio before reorganization. Source: Elaboration from Company Website. Poltrona Frau Group Figure 4. Source: Company Website.

Following the process restructuring see later , the company retains full control over the entire production process and carries out directly the higher value-added steps, while lower value-added phases are outsourced.

The group currently has a workforce of individuals, with a decrease from individuals in , due to the exit of the Shengzhou site from the scope of consolidation, and the decrease in volumes in the last months of the year of the Detroit plant.

In Italy, Poltrona Frau Group employs people. The proprietary Pelle Frau trademark states the quality of the leather used in production.

The raw materials procurement process is driven by customer orders; tight quality control is exercised throughout the production cycle, from the purchase of materials to instrumental and visual controls at the completion of the different phases of the production cycle.

Part of the revenues earned by the Group has high level of seasonality, with contracts being completed mostly in the second half of the year.

This revenues seasonality, associ- ated with a greater concentration of communication and marketing costs in the first half 9 Company Reports.

Source: Company Data of the year, usually causes the absorption of funds in the first three quarters of the year and a considerable generation of cash only in the fourth quarter.

Those costs are greatly concentrated in the first half of the year, connected in particular with the Salone Internazionale del Mobile of Milan.

Main communication targets differ for each brand: Frau targets mainly end-users, Cassina is instead focused on trade dealers, while Cappellini focuses on architects and designers.

Product rotation, in particular for high-end products is also fairly low, thus requiring considerable investments in inventory. Distribution therefore largely relies on the whole- sale channel, multi-brand stores in particular Lojacono, Mono-brand stores help enhance the brand image and are key for penetrating new markets but are only financially sustainable in large cities.

Directly operated stores i. Poltrona Frau Group visible locations, where format and store quality control are essential for preserving and transmitting brand values.

DOS are also a reference point for PR activities and often a key support for the contract business. The Group has developed a fairly extensive distri- bution network, with 70 mono-brand and multi-brand Group stores opened with selected partners and 24 DOS, in prime locations in major Italian and international cities.

In , nine showrooms were opened, four of which in China. The investment period can be divided into two main phases. In this period, Cassina and Cappellini joined Poltrona Frau.

At the end of the first phase, Poltrona Frau Group was listed on Milan Stock Exchange via IPO. After the listing, a second phase began.

Finally, Charme exited the investment in , via a trade sale to Haworth Inc. Poltrona Frau Group and Charme Investments Figure 4.

Debt was quite low with net debt In this context, in Dec.

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