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For a child who needs a smaller size, a fractional-sized violin is often strung with the strings of a viola. Large violas tenors were designed to play the lower register viola lines or second viola in five part harmony depending on instrumentation.

A smaller viola, nearer the size of the violin, was called an alto viola. It was more suited to higher register writing, as in the viola 1 parts, as their sound was usually richer in the upper register.

Its size was not as conducive to a full tone in the lower register. Several experiments have intended to increase the size of the viola to improve its sound.

Many experiments with the acoustics of a viola, particularly increasing the size of the body, have resulted in a much deeper tone, making it resemble the tone of a cello.

One of the most notable makers of violas of the twentieth century was Englishman A. Smith , whose violas are sought after and highly valued.

More recent and more radically shaped innovations have addressed the ergonomic problems associated with playing the viola by making it shorter and lighter, while finding ways to keep the traditional sound.

Other experiments that deal with the "ergonomics vs. The American composer Harry Partch fitted a viola with a cello neck to allow the use of his tone scale, called the "adapted viola".

Luthiers have also created five-stringed violas, which allow a greater playing range. A person who plays the viola is called a violist or a viola player.

The technique required for playing a viola has certain differences compared with that of a violin, partly because of its larger size: the notes are spread out farther along the fingerboard and often require different fingerings.

The viola's four strings are normally tuned in fifths: the lowest string is C an octave below middle C , with G, D and A above it.

This tuning is exactly one fifth below the violin, [14] so that they have three strings in common—G, D, and A—and is one octave above the cello.

Each string of a viola is wrapped around a peg near the scroll and is tuned by turning the peg. Tightening the string raises the pitch; loosening the string lowers the pitch.

The A string is normally tuned first, to the pitch of the ensemble: generally hz. The other strings are then tuned to it in intervals of fifths, usually by bowing two strings simultaneously.

Most violas also have adjusters — fine tuners , particularly on the A string that make finer changes. Such tuning is generally easier to learn than using the pegs, and adjusters are usually recommended for younger players and put on smaller violas, though pegs and adjusters are usually used together.

Some violists reverse the stringing of the C and G pegs, so that the thicker C string does not turn so severe an angle over the nut , although this is uncommon.

Small, temporary tuning adjustments can also be made by stretching a string with the hand. A string may be tuned down by pulling it above the fingerboard, or tuned up by pressing the part of the string in the pegbox.

These techniques may be useful in performance, reducing the ill effects of an out-of-tune string until an opportunity to tune properly.

The tuning C—G—D—A is used for the great majority of all viola music. However, other tunings are occasionally employed, both in classical music , where the technique is known as scordatura , and in some folk styles.

He probably intended to give the viola a brighter tone so the rest of the ensemble wouldn't overpower it. Occasionally the C string may also be tuned up to D.

A renewal of interest in the viola by performers and composers in the twentieth century led to increased research devoted to the instrument.

Paul Hindemith and Vadim Borisovsky made an early attempt at an organization, in , with the Violists' World Union. But it was not until , with the creation of the Viola-Forschungsgesellschaft, now the International Viola Society IVS , that a lasting organization took hold.

In addition to the journal, the AVS sponsors the David Dalton Research Competition and the Primrose International Viola Competition.

The s also saw the beginning of several research publications devoted to the viola, beginning with Franz Zeyringer's, " Literatur für Viola" , which has undergone several versions, the most recent being in In , Maurice Riley produced the first attempt at a comprehensive history of the viola, in his History of the Viola , which was followed with a second volume in The IVS published the multi-language Viola Yearbook from to , during which several other national chapters of the IVS published respective newsletters.

The Primrose International Viola Archive at Brigham Young University houses the greatest amount of material related to the viola, including scores, recordings, instruments, and archival materials from some of the world's greatest violists.

Music that is written for the viola differs from that of most other instruments, in that it primarily uses the alto clef , which is otherwise rarely used.

The trombone occasionally uses the alto clef, but not primarily. The comparatively rare alto trombone primarily uses the alto clef.

Another instrument that commonly uses alto clef is the Viola d'Amore. Viola music employs the treble clef when there are substantial sections of music written in a higher register.

The alto clef is defined by the placement of C 4 on the center line of the staff. In treble clef, this note is placed one ledger line below the staff and in the bass clef used, notably, by the cello and double bass it is placed one ledger line above.

As the viola is tuned exactly one octave above the cello meaning that the viola retains the same string notes as the cello, but an octave up , pieces written for the cello can be easily transposed to the alto clef.

For example, there are numerous editions of Bach's Cello Suites transcribed for viola that retain the original key, notes, and musical patterns.

In early orchestral music, the viola part was usually limited to filling in harmonies , with very little melodic material assigned to it.

When the viola was given a melodic part, it was often duplicated or was in unison with the melody played by other strings. The concerti grossi, " Brandenburg Concerti ", composed by J.

Bach , were unusual in their use of viola. The third concerto grosso, scored for three violins, three violas, and lower strings with basso continuo, requires occasional virtuosity from the violists.

There are a few Baroque and Classical concerti, such as those by Georg Philipp Telemann one of the earliest viola concertos known , Alessandro Rolla , Franz Anton Hoffmeister and Carl Stamitz.

The viola plays an important role in chamber music. Mozart used the viola in more creative ways when he wrote his six string quintets.

The young Felix Mendelssohn wrote a little-known Viola Sonata in C minor without opus number, but dating from Robert Schumann wrote his Märchenbilder for viola and piano.

He also wrote a set of four pieces for clarinet, viola, and piano, Märchenerzählungen. Max Bruch wrote a romance for viola and orchestra, his Op.

His Concerto for Clarinet, Viola, and Orchestra , Op. Only the lower two stamens are calcarate possessing nectary spurs that are inserted on the lowest petal into the spur or a pouch.

The styles are filiform threadlike or clavate clubshaped , thickened at their tip, being globose to rostellate beaked.

The stigmas are head-like, narrowed or often beaked. The flowers have a superior ovary with one cell, which has three placentae , containing many ovules.

After flowering, fruit capsules are produced that are thick walled, with few to many seeds per carpel , and dehisce split open by way of three valves.

One characteristic of some Viola is the elusive scent of their flowers; along with terpenes , a major component of the scent is a ketone compound called ionone , which temporarily desensitizes the receptors of the nose, thus preventing any further scent being detected from the flower until the nerves recover.

First formally described by Carl Linnaeus in [6] with 19 species, the genus Viola bears his botanical authority , L. Viola is one of about 25 genera and about species in the large family eudicot family Violaceae , divided into subfamilies and tribes.

While most genera are monotypic , Viola is a very large genus, variously circumscribed as having between and species. Historically it was placed in subfamily Violoideae, tribe Violeae.

But these divisions have been shown to be artificial and not monophyletic. Molecular phylogenetic studies show that Viola occurs in Clade I of the family, as Viola , Schweiggeria , Noisettia and Allexis , in which Schweiggeria and Noisettia are monotypic and form a sister group to Viola.

Viola is a large genus, that has traditionally been treated in sections. The largest and most diverse, being section Viola , with 17 subsections.

In addition to subsections, series were also described. Subsequent treatments were by Gershoy [22] and Clausen , [23] using subsections and series.

These were all based on morphological characteristics. Subsequent studies using molecular phylogenetic methods, such as that of Ballard et al.

In particular section Nomimium was dismembered into several new sections and transferring part of it to section Viola.

Section Viola s. In that analysis, the S American sections appear to be the basal groups , starting with Rubellium , then Leptidium.

However, the exact phylogenetic relationships remain unresolved, as a consequence many different taxonomic nomenclatures are in use, including groupings referred to as Grex.

These are followed by the single Australian section, Erpetion , as sister group to Chilenium , the northern hemisphere sections and finally the single African section, V.

These sections are morphologically, chromosomally, and geographically distinct. Seventeen sections are recognized, listed alphabetically approximate no.

The genus includes dog violets , a group of scentless species which are the most common Viola in many areas, sweet violet Viola odorata named from its sweet scent , and many other species whose common name includes the word "violet".

But not other "violets": Neither Streptocarpus sect. Saintpaulia "African violets", Gesneriaceae nor Erythronium dens-canis "dogtooth violets", Liliaceae are related to Viola.

With about species, the South American section Andinium is the largest of the Viola sections. It is one of the four sections distributed primarily or exclusively in South America, and the basal group of Viola.

New species continue to be identified. Chamaemelanium was one of a number of sections originally classified on the basis of the shape of the stigma, in this case one that was facial shaped, had an absent beak and had lateral beards.

But this section has subsequently been shown to be paraphyletic, requiring revision. Section Erpetion [42]. Section Melanium pansies [18] [43].

Habitat fragmentation has been shown to have minimal effect on the genetic diversity and gene flow of the North American woodland violet Viola pubescens.

Plants that produce copious amounts of clonal seeds from cleistogmaous flowers often experience increased levels of inbreeding.

The worldwide northern temperate distribution of the genus distinguishes it from the remaining largely tropical Violaceae genera, restricted to either Old World or New World species, while in the tropics the distribution is primarily in high mountainous areas.

Viola species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the giant leopard moth , large yellow underwing , lesser broad-bordered yellow underwing , high brown fritillary , small pearl-bordered fritillary , pearl-bordered fritillary , regal fritillary , cardinal , and Setaceous Hebrew character.

The larvae of many fritilary butterfly species use violets as an obligate host plant, although these butterflies do not always ovaposit directly onto violets.

Cleistogamy allows plants to produce offspring year round and have more chances for establishment. Many violet species exhibit two modes of seed dispersal.

Once seed capsules have matured, seeds are dispelled around the plant through explosive dehiscence. This interaction allows violet seed to germinate and establish in a protected, stable environment.

Many violet seeds exhibit physiological dormancy and require some period of cold stratification to induce germination under ex situ conditions.

Violet species occupy a diverse array of habitats, from bogs Viola lanceolata to dry hill prairies V. While many of these species are indicators of high quality habitat, some violets are capable of thriving in a human altered landscape.

Two species of zinc violet V. Flowering is often profuse, and may last for much of the spring and summer.

Viola are most often spring-blooming with chasmogamous flowers that have well developed petals pollinated by insects.

Many species also produce self-pollinated cleistogamous flowers in summer and autumn that do not open and lack petals. The international registration authority for the genus is the American Violet Society , where growers register new Viola cultivars.

In this system violets Vt are defined as " stoloniferous perennials with small, highly fragrant, self-coloured purple, blue or white flowers in late winter and early spring".

Cultivars of Viola cornuta , Viola cucullata , and Viola odorata , are commonly grown from seed. Other species often grown include Viola labradorica , Viola pedata , and Viola rotundifolia.

The modern garden pansy V. In in the United States, Viola cultivars including pansies were one of the top three bedding plant crops and million dollars worth of flats of Viola were produced for the bedding flower market.

Pansies and violas used for bedding are generally raised from seed, and F1 hybrid seed strains have been developed which produce compact plants of reasonably consistent flower coloring and appearance.

Bedding plants are usually discarded after one growing season. There are hundreds of perennial viola and violetta cultivars; many of these do not breed true from seed and therefore have to be propagated from cuttings.

Violettas can be distinguished from violas by the lack of ray markings on their petals. Other popular examples include: [76].

When newly opened, Viola flowers may be used to decorate salads or in stuffings for poultry or fish. The young leaves are edible raw or cooked as a somewhat bland leaf vegetable.

The flowers and leaves of the cultivar 'Rebecca', one of the Violetta violets, have a distinct vanilla flavor with hints of wintergreen.

The pungent perfume of some varieties of V. The heart-shaped leaves of V. A candied violet or crystallized violet is a flower, usually of Viola odorata , preserved by a coating of egg white and crystallised sugar.

Alternatively, hot syrup is poured over the fresh flower or the flower is immersed in the syrup and stirred until the sugar recrystallizes and has dried.

This method is still used for rose petals and was applied to orange flowers in the past when almonds or orange peel are treated this way they are called pralines.

Candied violets are still made commercially in Toulouse , France, where they are known as violettes de Toulouse. They are used as decorating cakes or trifles or included in aromatic desserts.

The French are also known for their violet syrup , most commonly made from an extract of violets.

In the United States, this French violet syrup is used to make violet scones and marshmallows. Viola essence flavours the liqueurs Creme Yvette , Creme de Violette , and Parfait d'Amour.

It is also used in confectionery, such as Parma Violets and C. Howard's Violet candies. Many Viola species contain antioxidants called anthocyanins.

Fourteen anthocyanins from V. Some anthocyanins show strong antioxidant activities. Viola has been evaluated in different clinical indications in human studies.

Viola odorata is used as a source for scents in the perfume industry. Violet is known to have a 'flirty' scent as its fragrance comes and goes.

Ionone is present in the flowers, which turns off the ability for humans to smell the fragrant compound for moments at a time.

Violet is the traditional birth flower for February in English tradition. In the United States, the common blue violet Viola sororia is the state flower of Illinois , [91] Rhode Island , [92] New Jersey [93] and Wisconsin , [94] [95] In Canada, the Viola cucullata is the provincial flower of New Brunswick adopted in [96] In the United Kingdom, Viola riviniana is the county flower of Lincolnshire.

Violets became symbolically associated with love between women. Violets, and badges depicting them, [] [] were sold in fund-raising efforts in Australia and New Zealand on and around Violet Day [] in commemoration of the lost soldiers of World War I.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Viola disambiguation. Genus of flowering plants, including violets and pansies, in Eudicot family Violaceae.

For a more comprehensive list, see List of Viola species. Archived from the original on 17 May Retrieved 8 June The Culinary Violet. The American Violet Society.

Archived from the original on Retrieved Phytochemical Analysis. Archived from the original PDF on Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry. Journal of Natural Products.

Journal of Ethnopharmacology. R PDR for Herbal Medicines. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. A natural history of the senses. New York: Vintage Books, State of Illinois.

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